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uthority to use: PD-USGOV-DOC-NOAA; PD-USGOV-NOAA

Today in History with a Twist: November 25, 2013

Nature Strikes!

1926 - The deadliest November tornado outbreak (The Great Tri-State Tornado of Wednesday, March 18, 1925, is the deadliest tornado outbreak all time in the U.S.) in U.S. history strikes on Thanksgiving Day. Twenty-seven twisters of great strength are reported in the Midwest, including the strongest November tornado, an estimated F4 (F5 is the highest, 80% of all tornadoes in the U.S. are F1 or less, only 1% are F4 or higher), that devastates Heber Springs, Arkansas. There are 51 deaths in Arkansas alone, 76 deaths and over 400 injuries in all. - Where's Dorothy?

It’s cold outside today but that's no excuse not to celebrate National Parfait Day! Did you know that the word "parfait" means "perfect" in French? It’s no wonder that this dish makes a perfect snack, meal, or dessert! Although parfaits were originally served on decorative plates, today they are typically layered in tall, thin glasses. There are also many variations on the original parfait recipe, which originated in France in the 19th century. American parfaits are made by layering ice cream with granola, nuts, yogurt, fresh fruits, and whip cream. Whip up your own version to celebrate National Parfait Day! (punchbowl.com)

1177 - Baldwin IV of Jerusalem, only 16 but suffering from leprosy, and Raynald of Châtillon defeat Saladin at the Battle of Montgisard. Baldwin had come to Jerusalem on a pilgrimage and had hoped to launch an invasion of Egypt in alliance with the Byzantine Empire; however, this failed to materialize. At the same time Saladin launched an invasion of the Kingdom of Jerusalem from Egypt. Baldwin gathered a small force and moved to block them. Saladin did not take that threat seriously and only sent a small part of his army to deal with them and continued to march on Jerusalem. Though outnumbered, by possibly as much as ten to one, Baldwin attacked and destroyed the blocking force and then went on to destroy Saladin's army which, by not taking the threat seriously, had been allowed to become widely dispersed. Saladin would return to Egypt, rebuild his army and return to capture Jerusalem, eventually leading to the Third Crusade. Saladin was only able to maintain his control over Egypt by telling the people he had won the battle. - That's why you need a free press.

1758 - During the French and Indian War (Seven Year's War in Europe) British forces capture Fort Duquesne from French control. Fort Pitt is built nearby and it grows into modern Pittsburgh. Despite having defeated two previous attacks, one in 1755 and the other earlier in 1758, the French abandoned the fort under threat of another British attack. The French withdrew due to the English arranging for several of tribes allied with the French to withdraw from the war greatly reducing the size of their force defending the fort. - The old Northwest, the 'wild west' of the 1700's.

1863 - Union forces led by General Ulysses S. Grant break the Siege of Chattanooga by routing Confederate troops under General Braxton Bragg at the Battle of Missionary Ridge in Tennessee. The battle was won when the attack against the Confederate center, which was only supposed to be a diversion against a part of the line that was considered impregnable, broke the Rebel line. The victory routed the Confederate's main force, the Army of the Tennessee, and opened the door for Sherman's march through the South. - I can't top this: When a chaplain asked General Thomas, who led the assault on the center, whether the dead should be sorted and buried by state, Thomas replied "Mix 'em up. I'm tired of states' rights."

1864 - In a lesser-known event during the Civil War, a group of eight Confederate operatives calling themselves the Confederate Army of Manhattan started fires in more than 20 locations in New York City in an unsuccessful attempt to burn down the city. The plot was orchestrated by Jacob Thompson, who had been the United States Secretary of the Interior at the outbreak of the American Civil War; he resigned and became the Inspector General of the Confederate States Army. The operatives infiltrated Union territory from Canada and made their way to New York. On Friday night, November 25, beginning around 8:45pm, the group attempted to simultaneously start fires in 19 hotels, a theater, and P.T. Barnum's museum. The objective was to overwhelm the city's firefighting resources by distributing the fires around the city. Most of the fires failed to start or were easily dealt with and the Rebels fled the city. - Seems Sherman paid better attention in the fire starting class.

1876 - In retaliation for the American defeat at the Battle of the Little Bighorn, United States Army troops sack Chief Dull Knife's sleeping Cheyenne village at the headwaters of the Powder River. Dull Knife did ally with the Sioux after their victory thus becoming involved in the war. The army came across the camp as they were celebrating a recent victory over the Shoshone. They waited until dawn to launch the attack to take advantage of the Indians sleeping off the previous night's activities. The victory was so decisive it ended the Northern Cheyenne as being an effective fighting force. - Hard to fight with a hangover.

1947 - The "Hollywood Ten" are blacklisted by Hollywood movie studios during the Red Scare. - The first systematic Hollywood blacklist was instituted on November 25, 1947, the day after ten writers and directors were cited for contempt of Congress for refusing to give testimony to the House Committee on Un-American Activities. A group of studio executives, acting under the aegis of the Motion Picture Association of America, announced the firing of the artists - the so-called Hollywood Ten - in what has become known as the Waldorf Statement. On June 22, 1950, a pamphlet called Red Channels appeared, focusing on the field of broadcasting. It named 151 entertainment industry professionals in the context of "Red Fascists and their sympathizers"; soon most of those named, along with a host of other artists, were barred from employment in much of the entertainment field. The blacklist was effectively broken in 1960 when Dalton Trumbo, an unrepentant communist member of the Hollywood Ten, was publicly acknowledged as the screenwriter of the films Spartacus and Exodus. A number of those blacklisted, however, were still barred from work in their professions for years afterward. (Wikipedia)

Today's birthdays:

1844 - Karl Benz - German engineer and businessman, inventor of the automobile and founder of Mercedes-Benz (d. 1929) - Henry Ford knew a good thing when he saw it.

1944 - Ben Stein - Actor, lawyer, author and Presidential speech writer. - And we best know him for: "Bueller, Bueller, Bueller....."

1983 - Joey Chestnut - American competitive eater. - Wait, you can make a living just by eating!?!

To learn more about the above topics check out the following books from the Library's collection:


Amazon Says: Book by Gandara, Lonnie, Ratner, Elaine more...
Amazon Says: Book by Gandara, Lonnie, Ratner, Elaine less...
Amazon


Amazon Says: Biography for ages 11 and older, holding over 150 pages packed with historical and biographical facts and adding to the 'Rules of the Middle Ages' series. From a chronology of more...
Amazon Says: Biography for ages 11 and older, holding over 150 pages packed with historical and biographical facts and adding to the 'Rules of the Middle Ages' series. From a chronology of events and lively biography background to chapter notes and Internet resources for further stud, SALADIN follows the ruler's influence on Egypt, Syria and the entire region. less...
Amazon


Amazon Says: On May 28, 1754, a group of militia and Indians led by twenty-two-year-old major George Washington surprised a camp of sleeping French soldiers near present-day Pittsburgh. Wa more...
Amazon Says: On May 28, 1754, a group of militia and Indians led by twenty-two-year-old major George Washington surprised a camp of sleeping French soldiers near present-day Pittsburgh. Washington could not have known it, but the brief and deadly exchange of fire that ensued lit the match that, in Horace Walpole's memorable phrase, would "set the world on fire." The resultung French and Indian War in North America became part of the global conflict known as the Seven Years War, fought across Europe, India, and the East and West Indies. Before it ended, nearly one million men had died. Empires at War captures the sweeping panorama of this first world war, especially in its descriptions of the strategy and intensity of the engagements in North America, many of them epic struggles between armies in the wilderness. William M. Fowler Jr. views the conflict both from British prime minister William Pitt's perspective-- as a vast chessboard, on which William Shirley's campaign in North America and the fortunes of Frederick the Great of Prussia were connected-- and from that of field commanders on the ground in America and Canada, who contended with disease, brutal weather, and scant supplies, frequently having to build the very roads they marched on. As in any conflict, individuals and events stand out: Sir William Johnson, a baronet and a major general of the British forces, who sometimes painted his face and dressed like a warrior when he fought beside his Indian allies; Edward Braddock's doomed march across Pennsylvania; the valiant French defense of Fort Ticonderoga; and the legendary battle for Quebec between armies led by the arisocratic French tactical genius, the marquis de Montcalm, and the gallant, if erratic, young Englishman James Wolfe-- both of whom died on the Plains of Abraham on September 13, 1759. For many, the French and Indian War has been merely the backdrop for James Fenimore Cooper's famous novel, The Last of the Mohicans. William M. Fowler Jr.'s engrossing narrative reveals it to have been a turning point of modern history, without which the American Revolution as we know it might well not have occurred. less...
Amazon


Amazon Says: Read all you need to know about the civil war especially the fight in Chattanooga. more...
Amazon Says: Read all you need to know about the civil war especially the fight in Chattanooga. less...
Amazon


Amazon Says: In 1861, with the survival of the United States in jeopardy, Abraham Lincoln--the Great Emancipator and champion of human freedom--responded to the national threat by suspendi more...
Amazon Says: In 1861, with the survival of the United States in jeopardy, Abraham Lincoln--the Great Emancipator and champion of human freedom--responded to the national threat by suspending the writ of habeas corpus, a traditional bulwark of individual liberty. Lincoln's decision reveals in stark terms a conflict inherent in the practice of American democracy, and in this absorbing new study the Chief Justice of the United States examines the inevitable clash between the demands of a successful war effort and the compelling need to protect civil liberties. Taking his title from Lincoln's speech before Congress defending his suspention of the writ, William H. Rehnquist relates in vivid detail how the exigencies of wartime have strained, threatened, and ultimately confirmed our most cherished civil liberties. The decisions made by a wartime government are unlike those made in times of peace, and here the Chief Justice guides the reader through the various wartime policies--and the legal decisions that followed--that tested the civil liberties we traditionally enjoy: the Lincoln administration's prosecution of civilians before military tribunals (as well as of the alleged conspirators in the Lincoln assassination); the criminalization in World War I of speech inciting resistance to the draft; the forcible relocation of Japanese-Americans in World War II; and the imposition for nearly three years of martial law in Hawaii. Each of these instances illustrates the Roman dictum Inter arma silent leges, "In time of war the laws are silent"; but as Rehnquist argues, that silence alternates with voices raised in defense of civil liberties. Written with characteristic grace and authority, All the Laws but One is a fascinating blend of historical narrative and legal analysis, a major contribution to our understanding of the great American experiment. less...
Amazon


Amazon Says: Rare, First-Hand Accounts from Newspaper Correspondents Describing the Course of America's Largest Indian War, Compiled and Edited for the First Time in One Volume more...
Amazon Says: Rare, First-Hand Accounts from Newspaper Correspondents Describing the Course of America's Largest Indian War, Compiled and Edited for the First Time in One Volume (There are more reviews beneath the Product Details below). "No one commands better the story of the Great Sioux War of 1876-1877 as presented in the nation's newspapers than does Marc Abrams. Here is Abrams's story of America's greatest Indian war woven from those timely reports, augmented with insightful introductions and annotations. Abrams has produced a significant addition to the historiography of this endlessly fascinating struggle and its colorful personalities." --Paul L. Hedren, author of After Custer: Loss and Transformation in Sioux Country "Marc Abrams has provided an invaluable service to both scholars and lay readers in compiling this treasure trove of primary information. Like the correspondents he has come to know through his research, Marc has done the hard work; we need only read in comfort and benefit from his efforts." --Douglas W. Ellison, author of Sole Survivor: An Examination of the Frank Finkel Narrative "[Marc] Abrams presents a fascinating compilation of military dispatches, first-hand accounts, and newspaper articles covering the conflict. Combined with his incisive comments, they present an invaluable picture of the struggle between peoples fighting to preserve their traditional lifestyles against the inexorable advance of 'civilization.' There are wonderfully revealing tidbits of information [throughout the narrative]." --Booklist Online "Marc Abrams's book is an exciting and innovative approach that brings immediacy to the campaigns of Custer, Crook, and Miles, and teems with fascinating new detail. Sioux War Dispatches not only offers a gripping contemporary window into those times, it fills an important reference need as well." --Jerome A. Greene, author of Stricken Field: The Little Bighorn Since 1876 Sioux War Dispatches: Reports from the Field, 1876-1877, tells the story of the Great Sioux War, including the battle of the Little Big Horn, primarily through the eyes of contemporary newspaper correspondents, both civilian and military. The volume begins with the Black Hills dilemma and the issue of the unceded territory (the disputed lands that were adjacent to the Great Sioux Reservation) and continues through to the spring of 1877 with the surrender of the legendary Sioux leader Crazy Horse. Along the way readers will learn about the Reynolds battle, the skirmish at Tongue River Heights, the battle of the Rosebud, the battle of the Little Big Horn, the skirmish at Warbonnet Creek, the fight at Slim Buttes, and more. In addition to numerous annotated excerpts from those who were there, are rare original dispatches, reprinted in full, that will transport readers back in time to experience first hand the action of the Great Sioux War. less...
Amazon


Amazon Says: In 1947, the House Un-American Activities Committee rudely interrupted the successful career and life of Edward Dmytryk, citing him with contempt of Congress. As a result, Dmy more...
Amazon Says: In 1947, the House Un-American Activities Committee rudely interrupted the successful career and life of Edward Dmytryk, citing him with contempt of Congress. As a result, Dmytryk was fired by RKO and spent three years in England before returning to the United States to serve a six-month jail sentence and undergo a second round of hearings, during which he recanted and provided evidence against several of his former colleagues.In this personal and perceptive book, Dmytryk sharply chronicles the history of a particularly turbulent era in American political life while examining his own life before and after the events universally called the witch hunts. He details his brief membership in the Communist Party of America, explaining his initial commitment to what he perceived as communist ideals of civil liberties, economic justice, and antifacism, followed by his eventual disillusionment with the party as itbetrayed those ideals. He goes on to provide a fair assessment of what then happened to him and the effect it had on the rest of his life.Dmytryk describes the activities, prejudices, and personal behaviors of all the parties enmeshed in the congressional hearings on communism in Hollywood. His reactions to other members of the Hollywood Ten and his recollection of conversations with them lend his book an immediacy that is not only informative but also absorbing. Most importantly, he does not uphold an ideology but rather presents the events as he perceived them, understood them, and responded to them. Dmytryk's account is characterized by an openness born of a mature awareness of personal trial as history. less...
Amazon


Amazon Says: Series: The Britannica Guide to the World's Most Influential People Library Binding: 336 pages Publisher: Rosen Education Service; 1 edition (December 20, 2009) Language: Engl more...
Amazon Says: Series: The Britannica Guide to the World's Most Influential People Library Binding: 336 pages Publisher: Rosen Education Service; 1 edition (December 20, 2009) Language: English less...
Amazon


Guinness World Records 2013 by Guinness World Records
Amazon Says: Guinness World Records 2013 is crammed with new and updated records, and never-before-seen photography. Meet the new shortest living man and a slam-dunking parrot, and witne more...
Amazon Says: Guinness World Records 2013 is crammed with new and updated records, and never-before-seen photography. Meet the new shortest living man and a slam-dunking parrot, and witness the fiercest predators in the ocean - you can see them in 3D with our new augmented reality app! less...
Amazon

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