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Today in History with a Twist: October 1, 2013

Guilty!

     1946 - The sentences are handed down on the Nazi leaders at the Nuremberg Trials.  Twelve of the twenty four defendants were sentenced to death, ten of which were hanged, Goerring committed suicide prior to his hanging and Martin Borman was found guilty in absentia and it was discovered that he had been killed in 1945 when his body was found decades later.  Three were acquitted and two not sentenced, one due the defendant committing suicide prior to the trial and the other Gustav Krupp being declared medically unfit to stand trial, ironically he was only indicted due to a clerical error, it was his son Alfred who was supposed to be charged but the judge would not let the substitution be made before the trial.  The rest received sentences varying from ten years to life. - There were charges that the hangman's nooses were purposely improperly measured so that the sentenced men would die a slow death from strangulation rather than have their necks broken causing a more humane death.  This was refuted despite the fact that most of the men took 15 to 30 minutes to die. - I'm sure it wasn't intentional.

     No cookies for them but for us it's Homemade Cookies Day!  Rather than stop by the store for your favorite brand of cookie, bake up your own batch of cookies today!  Whether you use a family recipe or browse online for a fun new recipe to try, today is the perfect day to bake up delicious cookies.  Cookies originated from extra cake batter that Dutch bakers experimented with cooking at varying oven temperatures.  Eventually they got it right, realized how yummy they are, and named these tiny cakes "cookies!" (Punchbowl.com)

     331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela.  The victory split the Persian Empire.  Darius was traveling east to raise a new army to face Alexander when one of his Generals, Bessus, assassinated him.  This is considered the end of the Persian Empire. - Alexander seemed to be responsible for a lot of that.

     1827 - In the Russo-Persian War the Russian army under Ivan Paskevich storms Yerevan, ending a millennium of Muslim domination in Armenia.  Paskevich's successes would lead to victory in the war in the following January and the emergence of the modern states of Armenia and Azerbaijan on the territories conquered from Persia during the war. - Not looking so good for the Russians today.

     1918 - Arab forces under T. E. Lawrence, also known as "Lawrence of Arabia" capture Damascus. - The first Arab Spring?

     959 - Edgar the Peaceable becomes king of all England.  His moniker is a bit of a misnomer due primarily to there being no wars during his reign.  He did seize the lands of his brothers and consolidated England into a single country. - His brothers probably didn't think of him as being peaceable.

      1961 - The United States Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) is formed, becoming the country's first centralized military espionage organization. - Espionage has such a negative connotation, I prefer Intelligence Collection.

Today we celebrate the birthdays of:

     86 BC - Sallust - Roman historian (d. 34 BC) - Earliest known Roman historian, influenced by Thucydides.  Rode Caesar's coat tails and would be named governor of the province of Africa Nova.  Adept at collecting kick backs and would illegally amass a personal fortune.  Was not a skilled military leader but he was good at logistics which Caesar valued. - Sounds like there's a commercial in there somewhre.

     1881 - William Boeing - Engineer and businessman, founded the Boeing Company (d. 1956) - Seattle should be named after him.

 

To learn more about the above topics checkout the following books from the Library's collection:


Amazon Says: A chilling story of human depravity and ultimate justice, told for the first time by an eyewitness court reporter for the Nuremberg war crimes trial of Nazi doctors. This is t more...
Amazon Says: A chilling story of human depravity and ultimate justice, told for the first time by an eyewitness court reporter for the Nuremberg war crimes trial of Nazi doctors. This is the account of 23 men torturing and killing by experiment in the name of scientific research and patriotism. Doctors from Hell includes trial transcripts that have not been easily available to the general public and previously unpublished photographs used as evidence in the trial. less...
Amazon


Amazon Says: Eighty-two recipes provide a sampling of time-tested, all-time favorite s from "Better Homes and Gardens". 27 color photos. more...
Amazon Says: Eighty-two recipes provide a sampling of time-tested, all-time favorite s from "Better Homes and Gardens". 27 color photos. less...
Amazon


Amazon Says: By the time of his death in 323 B.C., Alexander III of Macedonia had built an empire that stretched from the eastern Mediterranean coast through Asia Minor and into the Indus more...
Amazon Says: By the time of his death in 323 B.C., Alexander III of Macedonia had built an empire that stretched from the eastern Mediterranean coast through Asia Minor and into the Indus valley. Even before his sudden death, Alexander had achieved mythical status throughout his kingdom, and in the centuries that followed his life became the subject of countless chronicles and biographies. N. G. L. Hammond, the foremost expert on ancient Macedonian history, here presents a new account of Alexander's fabled career. Based on a thorough analysis of the ancient sources and enriched by a lifetime of research, Hammond's narrative pronounces the Macedonian conqueror a man truly deserving of the title Alexander the Great. According to Hammond, Alexander was a visionary statesman and general, the force behind a kingdom which rose above racism and nationalism to enjoy peace and prosperity. His intellect and charismatic personality, which earned him the respect, admiration, and devotion of his subjects, also help explain Alexander's endurance as a source of fascination into the present day. less...
Amazon


Amazon Says: Book annotation not available for this title. Title: A Concise History of the Armenian People Author: Bournoutian, George A. Publisher: Mazda Pub Publi more...
Amazon Says: Book annotation not available for this title. Title: A Concise History of the Armenian People Author: Bournoutian, George A. Publisher: Mazda Pub Publication Date: 2002/07/01 Number of Pages: 499 Binding Type: PAPERBACK Library of Congress: 2002021898 less...
Amazon


Amazon Says: A major new biography that provides readers with the first nuanced portrait of one of this century's most daring and enigmatic adventurers. T. E. Lawrence began his role in more...
Amazon Says: A major new biography that provides readers with the first nuanced portrait of one of this century's most daring and enigmatic adventurers. T. E. Lawrence began his role in World War I as a map clerk and ended it as one of the greatest military heroes of the century. He altered the face of the Middle East, helped the Arabs gain their freedom, and formulated many of the precepts of modern guerrilla warfare. But he refused any honors and spent the rest of his life in near obscurity. A brilliant propagandist, rhetorician, and manipulator, Lawrence deliberately turned his life into a conundrum, thereby assuring his place as a mythical cult-figure for posterity. But who was the real man behind the masks? Desert explorer and Arab scholar Michael Asher set out to solve this riddle of appearances. The result--a biography combining the techniques of the detective story, travelogue, epic history, and high drama--clears away some of the false trails and captures the authentic atmosphere of the Arab Revolt. less...
Amazon


Amazon Says: Book by Morris, Jean more...
Amazon Says: Book by Morris, Jean less...
Amazon


Amazon Says: "Graduating from college with a degree in Middle East studies, Rossmiller joined the Defense Department's Intelligence Agency in 2004 and soon volunteered to join a DIA unit i more...
Amazon Says: "Graduating from college with a degree in Middle East studies, Rossmiller joined the Defense Department's Intelligence Agency in 2004 and soon volunteered to join a DIA unit in Iraq. He vividly recounts his six-month tour—the physical misery of the environment and the frustrations of feeling his work rarely made a difference. Good intelligence, he explains, begins with people on the spot (in this case usually Iraqis), who take risks but supply information that is often fragmented, out-of-date and even self-serving or false. Analysts, such as the author, tease out useful data and deliver it quickly to fighting men. Hobbled by clueless superiors and their turf wars, as well as ignorance of Iraqi culture, DIA units, including Rossmiller's, witnessed American forces repeatedly acting on poor or outdated intelligence. They killed and arrested plenty of genuine insurgents but also killed, arrested and infuriated many innocent Iraqis, which crippled their efforts. Back in Washington, Rossmiller discovered the agency under pressure to provide good news for the Bush administration. Superiors regularly rejected his analyses of Iraqi politics as “too pessimistic.” If repeated rewrites lacked an upbeat conclusion, superiors inserted one. That his predictions turned out to be correct made no difference. This intense, partisan arm-twisting devastated morale, resulting in an exodus of agency experts, including the author. Rossmiller gives a lively insider's view of the petty and not-so-petty politics that affect the intelligence our leaders receive in their efforts to pacify Iraq; it is not a pretty picture." -Publishers Weekly After 9/11, billions of dollars were spent to overhaul America’s dysfunctional intelligence services, which were mired in bureaucracy, turf wars, and dated technology. But in this astonishing new book, A. J. Rossmiller, a former Defense Intelligence Agency analyst honored for his efforts here and in Iraq, reveals firsthand evidence that the intelligence system remains in disrepair. Still Broken is a blistering account of the ideology and incompetence that cripple our efforts to confront our enemies and fight our wars. Like many Americans, Rossmiller was moved to action by the attacks on 9/11. Freshly graduated from Middlebury College, he went to work for the U.S. government in 2004. But his enthusiasm slowly turned to disillusion as he began to fulfill his duties for DIA, the spy arm of the Department of Defense. There he found the Cold War and 9/11 generations at odds, the cause of fighting terrorism superseded by the need to contain a dismally managed war in Iraq, the Bush administration widely mocked and distrusted, and the intelligence process crippled from top to bottom. Rather than give up, Rossmiller instead went further, volunteering to go to Iraq to aid the troops on the ground, contribute to tactical intelligence, and, he hoped, help bring about an end to a fatally mismanaged war. For six months in that besieged country, he worked for the Direct Action Cell, the “track ’em and whack ’em” unit devoted to unmasking and targeting insurgents. He learned that, to put it mildly, the intelligence process bears no resemblance to the streamlined, well-resourced, and timely operation in a James Bond or Jason Bourne movie. He also experienced the disastrous counterterrorism and detainee strategies for which mass imprisonment–with little interest in guilt or innocence–is standard operating procedure. Back at the Pentagon as a strategic issues expert in the Office of Iraq Analysis, Rossmiller saw the administration’s heavy hand in determining how information is processed. In a dysfunctional office filled with outsize personalities and the constant drone of Fox News, he filed reports on the ever-worsening situation in Iraq. These assessments, ultimately proven accurate, were consistently rejected as “too pessimistic” and “off message” and repeatedly changed to be more in line with delusional White House projections. Written with passion, intensity, and self-deprecating humor, Still Broken is a riveting and sobering portrait of Bush-era intelligence failures and manipulations, laid out by someone who witnessed them up close and personal. It also offers a sincere, thoughtful prescription for healing the system so that a new and motivated generation won’t disengage completely from its government. less...
Amazon


Amazon Says: Though the wonders of ancient Roman culture continue to attract interest across the disciplines, it is difficult to find a lively, accessible collection of the full range of t more...
Amazon Says: Though the wonders of ancient Roman culture continue to attract interest across the disciplines, it is difficult to find a lively, accessible collection of the full range of the era's literature in English. The Oxford Anthology of Roman Literature provides a general introduction to the literature of the Roman empire at its zenith, between the second century Bc and the second century Ad. Two features of this extraordinarily fertile period in literary achievement as evidenced by this anthology are immediately and repeatedly clear: how similar the Romans' view of the world was to our own and, perhaps even more obviously, how different it was. Most of the authors included in the anthology wrote in Latin, but as the anthology moves forward in time, relevant Greek texts that reflect the cultural diversity of Roman literary life are also included, something no other such anthology has done in the past. Roman literature was wonderfully creative and diverse, and the texts in this volume were chosen from a broad range of genres: drama, epic, philosophy, satire, lyric poetry, love poetry. By its very nature an anthology can abbreviate and thus obscure the most attractive features of even a masterpiece, so the two editors have not only selected texts that capture the essence of the respective authors, but also have included accompanying introductions and afterwords that will guide the reader in pursuing further reading. The presentations of the selections are enlivened with illustrations that locate the works within the contexts of the world in which they were written and enjoyed. The student and general reader will come away from this learned yet entertaining anthology with a fuller appreciation of the place occupied by literature in the Roman world. less...
Amazon


William Boeing: Builder of Planes by Sharlene P. Nelson
Amazon Says: A biography of Bill Boeing, a pioneer in the development of aviation and the founder of the Boeing Company, which started out building military and transport airplanes and now more...
Amazon Says: A biography of Bill Boeing, a pioneer in the development of aviation and the founder of the Boeing Company, which started out building military and transport airplanes and now builds most of the world's passenger jet aircraft. less...
Amazon

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