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Republic of Turkey Ministry of National Education

Today in History with a Twist: October 29, 2013

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey.  Empire No Longer!  1923 - After a series of wars that began in the late 1800's culminating with its defeat in World War I as member of the Central Powers the Ottomans were stripped of most of its territory.  A Turkish nationalist movement arose in the early 1900's that culminated with the Turkish Independence War, which would result in Turkey becoming a republic and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire.  Mustafa Kemal Pasha (known as Mustafa Kemal Atatürk) the leader of the revolution would become Turkey's first President. - I always found it hard to take the Ottoman Empire seriously since it sounded like a footrest.

      I know a lot of you out there are celebrating this day.  Today is National Cat Day! “What greater gift than the love of a cat?” Charles Dickens once mused.  Cats are one of the most beloved human companions of all time.  They were first domesticated in the Middle East’s Fertile Crescent as early as 12,000 years ago.  When humans relied on hunting as their main source of food, dogs were most useful, but when the first agricultural societies emerged, cats became invaluable.  Domesticated cats became responsible for keeping grain stores free of mice and other rodents.  Today, cats can be found in 34% of American households, making them the most popular house pet in the United States.  Pet lifestyle expert and animal welfare advocate Colleen Paige established National Cat Day in 2005.  In honor of the occasion, celebrate cats and the unconditional love and companionship they give to their owners.  If you don't own a cat, volunteer at your local animal shelter or make a donation.  It’s the purrrrfect way to show you care! (Punchbowl.com)

     312 - Constantine the Great enters Rome, after his victory at the Milvian Bridge over co-Emperor Maxentius, staging a grand adventus in the city, and is met with popular jubilation.  The victory would lead to the end of the Tetrarchy and Constantine becoming the sole ruler of the Roman Empire.  Maxentius drowned in the Tiber River during the battle, his body was fished out of the Tiber and beheaded. - Just making sure.

      1956 - In response to Egypt developing closer ties with the Communist Bloc and Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalizing the Suez Canal Israeli forces, supported by England and France, invade the Sinai Peninsula and push Egyptian forces back toward the Suez Canal.  The goal was to overthrow Nasser and regain Western control of the Suez Canal.  The United States, Russia and the U.N. would pressure the aggressors to stop the war. - Setting the stage for the 1967 War.

      1792 - Mount Hood (Oregon) is named after the British naval officer Alexander Arthur Hood by Lt. William E. Broughton who spotted the mountain near the mouth of the Willamette River. - Kind of hard to miss.

     1969 - The first-ever computer-to-computer link is established on ARPANET, the precursor to the Internet. - Did Al Gore invent it?

     1998 - Space Shuttle Discovery blasts off with 77-year old John Glenn on board, making him the oldest person to go into space. - Perk for being a Congressman?

Today we celebrate the birthdays of:

     1897 - Joseph Goebbels - German politician, Chancellor of Germany and Propaganda Minister. (d. 1945) - The ultimate spin doctor.

     1921 - Bill Mauldin - Cartoonist (d. 2003) Most famous for his Willie and Joe comics during World War II. - Takes skill to make war funny.

To learn more about the above topics check out the following books from the Library's collection:

 


Constantine and Rome by R. Ross Holloway
Amazon Says: Constantine the Great (285-337) played a crucial role in mediating between the pagan, imperial past of the city of Rome, which he conquered in 312, and its future as a Christi more...
Amazon Says: Constantine the Great (285-337) played a crucial role in mediating between the pagan, imperial past of the city of Rome, which he conquered in 312, and its future as a Christian capital. In this learned and highly readable book, Ross Holloway examines Constantine's remarkable building programme in Rome. Holloway begins by examining the Christian Church in the period before the Peace of 313, when Constantine and his co-emperor Licinius ended the persecution of the Christians. He then focuses on the structure, style, and significance of important monuments: the Arch of Constantine and the two great Christian basilicas, St. John's in the Lateran and St. Peter's, as well as the imperial mausoleum at Tor Pignatara. In a final chapter Holloway advances a new interpretation of the archaeology of the Tomb of St. Peter beneath the high altar of St. Peter's Basilica. The tomb, he concludes, was not the original resting place of the remains venerated as those of the Apostle but was created only in 251 by Pope Cornelius. Drawing on the most up-to-date archaeological evidence, he describes a cityscape that was at once Christian and pagan, mirroring the personality of its ruler. less...
Amazon

Amazon Says: A gripping tale of international intrigue and betray-al, Eisenhower 1956 is the white-knuckle story of how President Dwight D. Eisenhower guided the United States through the more...
Amazon Says: A gripping tale of international intrigue and betray-al, Eisenhower 1956 is the white-knuckle story of how President Dwight D. Eisenhower guided the United States through the Suez Canal crisis of 1956. The crisis climaxed in a tumultuous nine-day period fraught with peril just prior to the 1956 presidential election, with Great Britain, France, and Israel invading Egypt while the Soviet Union ruthlessly crushed rebellion in Hungary. David A. Nichols, a leading expert on Eisenhower’s presidency, draws on hundreds of documents declassified in the last thirty years, enabling the reader to look over Ike’s shoulder and follow him day by day, sometimes hour by hour as he grappled with the greatest international crisis of his presidency. The author uses formerly top secret minutes of National Security Council and Oval Office meetings to illuminate a crisis that threatened to escalate into global conflict. Nichols shows how two life-threatening illnesses—Eisenhower’s heart attack in September 1955 and his abdominal surgery in June 1956—took the president out of action at critical moments and contributed to missteps by his administration. In 1956, more than two thirds of Western Europe’s oil supplies transited the Suez Canal, which was run by a company controlled by the British and French, Egypt’s former colonial masters. When the United States withdrew its offer to finance the Aswan Dam in July of that year, Egypt’s president, Gamal Abdel Nasser, nationalized the canal. Without Eisenhower’s knowledge, Britain and France secretly plotted with Israel to invade Egypt and topple Nasser. On October 29—nine days before the U.S. presidential election—Israel invaded Egypt, setting the stage for a “perfect storm.” British and French forces soon began bombing Egyptian ports and airfields and landing troops who quickly routed the Egyptian army. Eisenhower condemned the attacks and pressed for a cease-fire at the United Nations. Within days, in Hungary, Soviet troops and tanks were killing thousands to suppress that nation’s bid for freedom. When Moscow openly threatened to intervene in the Middle East, Eisenhower placed American military forces—including some with nuclear weapons—on alert and sternly warned the Soviet Union against intervention. On November 6, Election Day, after voting at his home in Gettysburg, Ike rushed back to the White House to review disturbing intelligence from Moscow with his military advisors. That same day, he learned that the United Nations had negotiated a cease-fire in the Suez war—a result, in no small measure, of Eisenhower’s steadfast opposition to the war and his refusal to aid the allies. In the aftermath of the Suez crisis, the United States effectively replaced Great Britain as the guarantor of stability in the Middle East. More than a half century later, that commitment remains the underlying premise for American policy in the region. Historians have long treated the Suez Crisis as a minor episode in the dissolution of colonial rule after World War II. As David Nichols makes clear in Eisenhower 1956, it was much more than that. less...
Amazon

Inventing the Internet by Janet Abbate
Amazon Says: Since the late 1960s the Internet has grown from a single experimental network serving a dozen sites in the United States to a network of networks linking millions of computer more...
Amazon Says: Since the late 1960s the Internet has grown from a single experimental network serving a dozen sites in the United States to a network of networks linking millions of computers worldwide. In Inventing the Internet, Janet Abbate recounts the key players and technologies that allowed the Internet to develop; but her main focus is always on the social and cultural factors that influenced the Internets design and use. The story she unfolds is an often twisting tale of collaboration and conflict among a remarkable variety of players, including government and military agencies, computer scientists in academia and industry, graduate students, telecommunications companies, standards organizations, and network users.The story starts with the early networking breakthroughs formulated in Cold War think tanks and realized in the Defense Department's creation of the ARPANET. It ends with the emergence of the Internet and its rapid and seemingly chaotic growth. Abbate looks at how academic and military influences and attitudes shaped both networks; how the usual lines between producer and user of a technology were crossed with interesting and unique results; and how later users invented their own very successful applications, such as electronic mail and the World Wide Web. She concludes that such applications continue the trend of decentralized, user-driven development that has characterized the Internet's entire history and that the key to the Internet's success has been a commitment to flexibility and diversity, both in technical design and in organizational culture. less...
Amazon
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